Registration and Early References in Yelden
In 1672 Charles II issued a Declaration of Toleration for Protestants dissenting from the Church of England; this had the effect of some dissenting meeting houses registering with the Secretary of State. The Toleration Act of 1689 enshrined the right of protestants to dissent from the Church of England and, once again, encouraged meeting houses to register voluntarily with local quarter sessions and Anglican church. Registration provided protection against persecution, laying a duty of protection upon magistrates and so was popular with nonconformists. Most registrations were made with quarter sessions until the middle of the 18th century, presumably due to the mutual antagonism of nonconformists and established Church. However, from that point registration with the Church, via the local archdeaconry began to become the favoured method, because the archdeaconry Registrar would issue a licence at any time rather than during the days each quarter when the quarter sessions met.
Visitations by the Bishop of Lincoln to Bedfordshire in the early 18th century give some idea as to the number of nonconformists in each parish from returns made by the vicar or rector. Former County Archivist Patricia Bell has compiled returns from 1706 to 1720 for the Bedfordshire Historical Records Society (Volume 81, published 2002); information for Yelden includes the following:
- 1706: The parish contained forty families "among these there are no Dissenters but One Man and 2 Women who have no Meeting house here";
- 1709: "Families 40, souls about 160, of which 4 are Independents;
- 1712: "Families about 30, of which 2 are Independents";
- 1717: "Families About 40. Eight Persons Dissenters, not reduct under any particular Sect, but seeming to come nearest to Independency. One Licensed Meeting House. Have assembled but twice the Twelve month. Their Number inconsiderable and consisting chiefly of Old Women. No Settled Teacher".
Bedfordshire & Luton Archives & Records Service has a reasonable number of registrations of nonconformist meeting houses in both the Quarter Sessions and Archdeaconry of Bedford archives. Registration continued through the 19th century even though persecution faded away - this was because registered buildings were allowed to claim exemption from parish poor rates, were exempt from control by the Charity Commission and were allowed to be licensed to carry out marriages. These things meant that registration became almost compulsory in practice for well-established nonconformist meetings. This is fortunate for the local historian because sometimes the only surviving references to a nonconformist meeting occur as registrations. One drawback with the registrations are that they do not usually inform the reader of the particular type of denomination involved, though sometimes it is possible to infer it from other evidence.
Edwin Welch researched the history of registrations in Bedfordshire for Bedfordshire Historical Records Society Volume 75 Bedfordshire Chapels and Meeting Houses [published in 1996] and found the following for Yelden:
- June 1761: The house in occupation of Mary Williamson, widow, was registered by the occupant herself, William Grent, R Twelvetree, John Berrill and John Worlidge [QSP32/2];
- August 1789: The house of Joseph Wadsworth was registered for occasional use by Thomas Williamson and John Williamson [ABN1/1, ABN2/61];
- December 1797: The house of Thomas Mee was registered [ABN1/1];
- March 1834: The house of Thomas Sikes was registered "to be used (occasionally) as a place of Religious Worship" by Henry White, William Knight and William Hodkings.