In Volume XIV published by Bedfordshire Historical Record Society in 1931 J Steele Elliott presented evidence for all windmills in the county. There were no mills still extant in Melchbourne at that date but the evidence began in 1338 when an inquisition on the Manor of Melchbourne stated that there were two windmills worth 40 shillings per annum. In 1595 a recovery of the manor also noted two mills.
A particular made of the lands of Oliver Saint John, 2nd Earl Bolingbroke in 1660 noted a windmill in occupation of Thomas Smyth worth £4/6/8 per annum. An early 18th century glebe terrier noted a close abutting west and north on Millground and another abutting east on Mill Close. The Tithe Apportionent of 1841 described Millground as containing 61 acres adjoining the road from Yelden to Swineshead very close to the parish boundary with Yelden [AT and MAT32].