Court Rolls Eleven to Fifteen
Willington Court Rolls introduction
Willington Court Rolls Index of pages
Court Roll 11
Document Ref. R8/62/1/3 (membrane 4)
April 30th 1409
Welyngton Court of Joan Queen of England held there Tuesday next before the feast of apostles Philip and James [1st May] in the tenth year of the reign of King Henry the fourth after the conquest
- There were no essoins and only one tenant did not attend.
- Six buildings needed repair, and one tenant had not used the timber that he had previously been given for repairs. There was one overflowing ditch.
- John Tunstall was named as the keeper of the wood of the Shyre and fourteen tenants were listed at the end of the roll as having been given timber to repair their buildings.
- Two women surrendered their holdings: Amicia Placer had been named as a brewer two years earlier; the new tenant of Christina Verne's holding agreed to 'well and sufficiently provide the said Cristiana with mixed grain and money in proportion to a tenth of his estate during all her life.'
- All the new tenancies were for one life. Three other holdings were let out, one of them to a relative of the former tenant, possibly his son.
- A by-law was passed ordering the tenants to repair the road 'Wadenye' which had been inspected by four village men.
Full transcript of Court Roll 11 (pdf)
Court Roll 12
Document ref/R8/62/1/3 (membranes 6 & 6d)
October 8th 1410
Welyngton View of Frankpledge with Court of Joan Queen of England held there on the Wednesday next before the feast of St. Dennis in the twelfth year of the reign of Henry the fourth
- The steward holding the court is named as 'Botelere.' There are no essoins, but 8 tenants did not attend court and were fined, with the exception of the Prior of Newnham..
- The miller, John Fylle, was fined for taking excessive tolls and not repairing the mill dam.
- There had been disturbances: two fights drawing blood, two women called the hue on them, and another tenant called the hue unlawfully.
- Possibly as a result of the above one young man entered a tithing and the fathers and a master of three others were ordered to see that they took the same oath.
- Three tenants had taken over vacant land without going through the legal processes.
- Two tenants had died. In one case the widow took over from her late husband, in the other, a widow's lands were left without a tenant.
- Three tenants had ruined buildings which they were ordered to repair. Two tenants had not yet repaired buildings that they were ordered to put right at the previous court. Trees were provided for the miller and two other tenants.
- There were three brewers of ale this year.
- The end of the roll is very indistinct. Four tenants seem to be fined for not paying rents of one chicken each. There are also four very brief entries relating to debts or other disputes.
Full transcript of Court Roll 12 (pdf)
Court Roll 13
Document ref.R8/62/1/3 (membrane 7)
April 22nd 1411
Welyngton Court of Joan Queen of England held there on Wednesday next after the close of Easter in the twelfth year of the reign of Henry the fourth after the conquest.
- Money from the estate of Matilda Yarwey, who died in 1410, was ordered to pay for repairs to her former holding. The queen also paid towards these repairs so that a new tenant, for one life, could take over.
- Nine tenants were ordered to repair buildings, and some repairs ordered previously had still not been done. Six tenants received timber for repairs.
- One plea of debt was settled out of court.
Three by-laws were passed:
- 'No tenant should at any time have hounds within the demesne of the lady, neither any dogs to go down the lady's Warren.'
- Colts must not be allowed to wander at large, but must be in pens with their mothers.
- 'No-one is permitted to let their sheep, pigs or calves roam in the fields without custody, allowing them to trespass on to the herbage and corn of the neighbourhood.'
Full transcript of Court Roll 13 (pdf)
Court Roll 14
Document ref. R8/62/1/3 (membrane 8)
October 14th 1411
Welyngton View of Frankpledge with Court of Joan Queen of England on the Wednesday next before the feast of St. Luke the Evangelist in the thirteenth year of the reign of Henry the fourth after the Conquest
- The steward holding the court is still named as 'Botelere.' There was one essoin, but a further five tenants did not come to court. They were all fined, except for the Prior of Newnham.
- Strays of a bay horse and a calf were recorded.
- There were two overflowing weirs.
- There were disturbances: one woman was described as a common scold, 2 instances of housebreaking and one of theft. One woman called the hue.
- Seven young men entered tithings.
- One widow claimed her former husband's holding and another holding was let out for life.
- One man was threatened with losing his holding if he did not do the repairs; five men were ordered to do their repairs or pay heavy fines; the mill dam and two other buildings had still not been repaired.
- There were fourteen brewers, four of them women.
Full transcription of Court Roll 14 (pdf)
Court Roll 14b
Document ref.R8/62/1/3 (dorse of membrane 8)
May 11th 1412
Welyngton Court of Joan Queen of England held there on the Wednesday next before the feast of the Ascension of the Lord in the thirteenth year of the reign of Henry the fourth after the conquest
- Two essoins.
- There were several changes of tenancy:
- Two tenants were removed from their holdings because they could not keep them in good repair. One holding was then let out for one life
- Five other tenants surrendered their holdings, of these four were re-let for one life.
- Four other buildings had to be repaired and timber was provided for fourteen tenants.
Full transcription of Court Roll 14b (pdf)
Court Roll 15
Document ref.R8/62/1/4 (membrane 8 & 8d)
October 4th 1413
View of Frankpledge with Court of John Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham and Marshall of England, held there on Wednesday next after the feast of St Michael the Archangel [29th September] in the first year of the reign of Henry the fifth after the conquest
This is the first roll to survive from the time that the manor passed back into the hands of the Mowbray family.
- The usual common fine is paid and five tenants did not attend court. No mention of the Prior of Newnham is made, so perhaps he came.
- One stopped-up weir must be cleared and two overflowing ditches, causing a nuisance, must be put right. Two important free tenants, John Maryon and John Gostwyk, have ditches that are not wide enough, which should be made wider.
- Three men are ordered to see that two young men were enrolled in tithings. This suggests that two of them were in partnership and employed one together as a servant.
- Strays, a swarm of bees and a pig, are sold
- The ale tasters are accused of not doing their jobs properly, but seven brewers are listed.
- The constables did not fine two people accused by other villagers, who called the hue.
- One tenant cut down a tree on his holding and instead of using it to repair his buildings he sold it.
- William Cook was said to be the keeper of Welyngton Wode. Twelve tenants were given timber to repair their buildings.
- The Lord's Council were to be asked what to do about an illegal enclosure by one of the tenants who had planted hedges round part of the common pasture
- Two cottages are surrendered and no tenant found.
- Two pleas of debt are settled out of court.
- The watermill is leased for nine years to John Usshere, 'which certain deed remains in the bag of rolls of Bedford.'
Full transcript of Court Roll 15 (pdf)