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Westoning Labourers in 1837

In 1838 an appendix to a report from a Select Committee on the Poor Law Amendment Act (1838) included details of the annual wages of labourers in Westoning for 1837, including remarks on the background of some of them [CRT130Westoning1]. A Mr. Turner, a Mr. Pearse and a Mr. Marshall all seem to have arrived at figures for their wages and these often varied! The entries below for each labourer give: his name; his annual wages for 1837 (where there is a range it means that Turner, Pearse and Marshall gave different figures); remarks made about him and evidence about his family taken from the 1851 census.

ALDRIDGE, William: £27/9/- to £28/10/-; "A single man, living with his parents to Michaelmas. Mr. Turner states three in family during the year"; 1851 - aged 35, agricultural labourer, born in Westoning. Also living with him were: Mary A., wife, 41, born Westoning; George, son, 12, agricultural labourer, born Westoning; Mary, daughter, 9, plaiting scholar, born Westoning; Emma, 7, daughter, plaiting scholar, born Westoning; William, son, 4, scholar, born Westoning; Elizabeth A., daughter, 2, born Westoning; Joseph, son, 1 month, born Westoning.

BONNER, Jacob: £35/6/- to £40/15/-; 1851 census: 48, agricultural labourer, born Westoning. Living with him were: Elizabeth, wife, 44, born Canterbury [Kent]; Ruth, daughter, 21, at home, born Westoning; Matthew, son, 18, agricultural labourer, born Westoning; Lucy, daughter, 14, at home, born Westoning; Rachel, daughter, 12, plaiting scholar, born Westoning; George, son, 9, plaiting scholar, born Westoning; Eli, son, 5, born Westoning. He lived next door to James Brinkler.

BONNER, Peter: £18/9/6 to £32/7/1; "A considerable portion of this man's time cannot be traced"; he is not in the 1851 census but Sarah Bonner, widow, aged 59, born in Haynes is. Living with her were Joseph, son, 18, jobbing servant, born Westoning; John, son, 15, jobbing servant, born Westoning; Joseph Lummus, grandson, 3, born Westoning.

BONNER, Samuel: £12/18/6 to £11/14/-; "Only 18 weeks' earnings out of 52 can be ascertained, man is stated to be three in family by Mr. Turner"; he is not in the 1851 census. A Samuel Bonner was buried in 1845, aged 84.

BRINKLER, James: £18/2/- to £19/15/8; "Travels with a basket, deals in skins, rags &c., will not disclose his earnings"; 1851 census 45, road man, born Westoning. He lived with: Mary, wife, 42, born Harlington; George, son, 19, of late a servant, now agricultural labourer, born in Westoning; Charles, son, 14, agricultural labourer, born in Westoning; Rachel, daughter, 11, at home, born Westoning; Thomas, son, 8, at home, born Westoning; Eli, son, 6, at home, born Westoning; Martha Case, mother-in-law, 64, pauper, born Westoning. He lived next door to Jacob Bonner.

BUNKER, Thomas: £7/16/- to £10/8/-; "Lives with his son, and has his board when at works in gardens &c."; No Thomas Bunker of the right age appears on the 1851 census and so he was probably dead - a Thomas Bunker was buried in June 1841, aged 74.

CARTER, John: £25/8/- to £31/13/6; "Has only four in family; Mr. Turner states five"; He does not appear on the 1851 census but a widow named Ann Carter, 48, pauper, born in Toddington does. Living with her are: Martha, daughter, 18, straw plaiter, born in Steppingley; Mary, daughter, 12, scholar, born in Westoning; Edward, son, 8, scholar, born in Westoning. A John Carter was buried in 1842, aged 31.

CHANCE, William: £25/18/- to £30/12/-; ""Lives with his father"; On the 1851 census he is still living with his father, Barnard, who is 89 and a pauper, he had been born in Eversholt. William is 38 and an agricultural labourer, born in Westoning. Living with them are: Susannah, William's wife, 36, born in Aspley Guise; Ann, William's daughter, 13, born Westoning; Betsy, William's daughter, 10, born Westoning; John, William's son, 8, a scholar, born in Westoning; Joseph, William 's son, 3, born in Westoning; James, William's son, 3, born in Westoning; Susannah, William's daughter, 2, born in Westoning; Joseph Dimmock, Barnard's nephew, 20, an agricultural labourer, born in Luton.

CHEW, Joseph: £19/4/- to £21/16/-; "Has worked at the railroad, and assists his father as a carpenter; his earnings cannot be traced; the family have been stated two, instead of three by Mr. Turner"; in the 1851 census he is 37 and an agricultural labourer, born in Westoning. Living with him are: Fanny, his wife, 37, born in Sundon; Lucy, daughter, at home, born Westoning; Rachel, daughter, 8, plaiting scholar, born Westoning; William, son, 2, born Higham Gobion.

COX, Benjamin: £33/4/- to £42/15/10; "Only eight in family; Mr. Turner states nine"; in the 1851 census he is 59, an agricultural labourer, born in Westoning. Living with him are: Elizabeth, wife, 58, errand woman at Ampthill, born Westoning; Elizabeth, daughter, 28, at home, born Westoning; William, son, 22, agricultural labourer, born Westoning; Rosanna, daughter, 20, at home, born Westoning; Harriett, daughter, 17, at home, born Westoning; George, son, 14, agricultural labourer, born Westoning; John, grandson, 10, born Westoning; Charlotte, granddaughter, 6, born Westoning; William, grandson, 2, born Westoning; Ann, granddaughter, 1 month, born Westoning.

COX, John: £13/13/- to £22/8/-; in the 1851 census he is 33, an agricultural labourer, born Westoning. Living with him are: Mary, wife, 36, plaiting school mistress, born Toddington; Sophia, daughter, 10. plaiting scholar, born Westoning; George, son, 7, plaiting scholar, born Westoning; William, son, 4, plaiting scholar, born Westoning; Purkiss, son, 2, born Westoning; Edith, daughter, 7 months, born Westoning; John Purkiss, brother-in-law, 34, agricultural labourer, born Hockly [Essex].

EATON, John: £13/15/- to £19/8/10; he does not appear in the 1851 census.

EATON, Joseph: £30/12/- to £30/17/-; in the 1851 census he is 41, an agricultural labourer, born in Westoning. Living with him are: Ann, wife, 37, born Westoning; Thomas, son, 17, agricultural labourer, born Westoning; Hannah, daughter, 16, born Westoning; Ann, daughter, 11, born Westoning; Betsy, daughter, 4, born Westoning; James, brother, 43, agricultural labourer, born Westoning.

FARR, John: £16/18/- to £21/18/-; he does not appear in the 1851 census.

GAZELEE; Thomas: £24/12/- to £ 26/13/3; in the 1851 census he is Thomas Gazeley, 46, agricultural labourer, born in Westoning. Living with him are: Sarah, wife, 43, born Maulden; George, son, 19, agricultural labourer born Westoning; James, son, 15, agricultural labourer, born Westoning; Elizabeth, daughter, 14, scholar, born Westoning; Hannah, daughter, 12, scholar, born Westoning; Ann, daughter, 10, plaiting scholar, born Westoning; Susannah, daughter, 7, scholar, born Westoning; William, son, 4, born Westoning. He lives net door to John Short and William Pedder.

GAZELEE, William: £13; "An allowance of 5 shillings per week from the parish, however neither man nor his wife are wholly unable to work"; in the 1851 census he is 52, a widower and agricultural labourer, born in Westoning. Living with him are: William Cox, son-in-law, 29, agricultural labourer, born Westoning; Sarah Cox, daughter, 24, born Westoning; Sarah Cox, granddaughter, 2, born Southgate [Buckinghamshire]; Caroline, granddaughter, 1 month, born Westoning. He lived next door to William Odell.

HACK, John: nil; "Too weak an intellect to account for his income"; in the 1851 census he is 68, a widower and pauper, born in Westoning. Living with him are: Jemima Cox, sister, 53, straw plaiter, born in Westoning; James Whitehead, lodger, 20, agricultural labourer, born Westoning.

HILYARD, Henry: £15/12/- to £18/12/3; in the 1851 census he is 36, an agricultural labourer, born Westoning. Living with him are: Elizabeth, wife, 35, born Flitwick; Henry, son, 6, plaiting scholar, born Westoning; Charles, son, 4, born Westoning.

JACKSON, George: £29/6/- to £61/3/4; "Left a place at 9 shillings a week to go begging"; he is not on the 1851 census but a Jemima Jackson is a widow, 45, a char woman, born in Houghton Conquest. Living with her are: Henry, son, 13, gardener, born Westoning; Emma, daughter, 10, at home, born Westoning; Elizabeth, daughter, 7, at home, born Westoning; Hannah Fir, visitor, widow, 62, straw plaiter, born Westoning.

KING, John: £23/17/- to £29/5/6; in the 1851 census he is 37, an agricultural labourer, born in Lidlington. Living with him are: Charlotte, wife, 40, born Westoning; William, son, 15, agricultural labourer, born Westoning; Amos, son, 12, plaiting scholar, born Westoning; Mary, daughter, 5, plaiting scholar, born Westoning; Naomi, daughter, 2, born Westoning; Margaret, mother, widow, 70, pauper, born Lidlington.

KINGHAM, Daniel: £24/9 to £26/19/6; "This man's statement of earnings is very unsatisfactory"; in the 1851 census he is 40, an agricultural labourer, born in Westoning. Living with him are: Mary, wife, 40, born Harlington; Elizabeth, daughter, 14, at home, born Westoning; James, son, 13, agricultural labourer, born Westoning; Emma, daughter, 11, scholar, born Westoning; Harriett, daughter, 5, scholar, born Westoning; Susan, daughter, 2, born Westoning; Elizabeth, daughter, 8 months, born Westoning.

KINGHAM, John: £28 to £30/3/6; in the 1851 census he is 43, an agricultural labourer, born in Westoning. Living with him are: Sarah H., wife, 43, born Westoning; Mary, daughter, 19, straw plaiter, born Westoning; William, son, 8, scholar, born Westoning; Harriett, daughter, 5, scholar, born Westoning; Edward, son, 9 months, born Westoning; Mary A. Lingar, lodger, unmarried, 15, straw plaiter, born Westoning.

KNIGHT, John: nil; "No account can be obtained of this man's earnings; he travels with a basket &c., &c."; he does not appear in the 1851 census.

LINGAR, James: £9/2/- to £19/6/4; he does not appear in the 1851 census.

LINGAR, Joseph senior: £20/4/- to £30/19/-; "Works much out of the parish; his earnings cannot be correctly ascertained"; he does not appear in the 1851 census.

LINGAR, Joseph junior: £8/8/- to £13; he does not appear in the 1851 census.

LINGAR, William: nil; "Resides out of the parish, travels with a basket &c., no proper account of his income can be obtained"; he does not appear in the 1851 census.

LOWENS, William: nil; "Refuses to account for his earnings; his wife teaches in a Sunday school, and keeps a day school"'; in the 1851 census he is William Lowings, 62, an agricultural labourer, born in Toddington. Living with him is his wife, Alice, 62, a plaiting school mistress, born in Westoning.

MARLOW, William: nil; "Refuses to give any information respecting his earnings"; in the 1851 census he is 67, a pauper, born in Sundon. Living with him are: Mary, wife, 57, born "Dunstable Houghton"; John, son, 26, agricultural labourer, born Westoning; Elizabeth, daughter, 20, straw plaiter, born Westoning; Ann, daughter, 13, plaiting scholar, born Westoning; Emma, granddaughter, 10 months, born Westoning.

NIELD, James: £17/12/- to £24/11/9; "a hay-binder, and generally handy; supposed to have earned considerably beyond the sum here stated; has but four in family but Mr. Turner states five"; in the 1851 census he is James Neal, a 50 year old widower and agricultural labourer, born in Higham Gobion and living as a lodger with publican Thomas Short at The Bell public house.

ODELL, John: nil; "Belongs to the Woburn Union; keeps dogs and ferrets, is a rat and mole catcher"; he does not appear in the 1851 census.

ODELL, Robert: £21/9/- to £28/3/6; he does not appear in the 1851 census.

ODELL, Thomas: £28/10/- to £27/18/9; he is not in the 1851 census. A Thomas Odell was buried in 1845, aged 38.

ODELL, William: £27/12/- to £42/2/4; in the 1851 census he was 54, an agricultural labourer, born in Westoning. Living with him were: Ann, wife, 54, born Westoning; Thomas Lingar, grandson, 6, scholar, born Westoning; Septimus Lingar, grandson, 3, born Clifton. He lived next door to William Gazeley.

PEDDER, William: £27/9/6 to £33/4/-; "Refuses to give any information and states it he will not give it to any person; his earnings are only ascertained in part"; in the 1851 census he is 44, an agricultural labourer, born in Westoning. Living with him are: Esther, wife, 43, born Westoning; George, son, 25, agricultural labourer, born Westoning; Ann, daughter, 20, straw plaiter, born Westoning; Sarah, daughter, 18, straw plaiter, born Westoning; Thomas, son, 17, agricultural labourer, born Westoning; William, son, 12, agricultural labourer, born Westoning; Samuel, son, 10, agricultural labourer, born Westoning; Joseph, son, 8, at home, born Westoning; Richard, son, 6, born Westoning; Kezia, daughter, 2 months, born Westoning; Elizabeth, granddaughter, 2 months, born Westoning. He lived next door to Thomas Gazeley and William Phillips junior.

PHILLIPS, Joseph: nil; "Refuses to give any information respecting his earnings"; he is not in the 1851 census but Ann, 67, widow, pauper, born Westoning is. Living with her are Joseph, son, 26, agricultural labourer, born Westoning; Sarah, daughter, 32, born Westoning; Betsy, granddaughter, 1, born Westoning. A Joseph Phillips was buried in 1843, aged 60.

PHILLIPS, William senior: nil; "Refuses to give any information respecting his earnings"; in the 1851 census he is 68, a widower, living with his daughter and son-in-law Martin Hillyard, he is a pauper and farm labourer and was born in Cranfield.

PHILLIPS, William junior: nil; "Refuses to give any information respecting his earnings"; in the 1851 census he is 34, an agricultural labourer, born in Westoning. Living with him are: Ann, wife, 41, born Westoning; Eliza Walton, daughter-in-law [should this read niece or sister-in-law?], an unmarried 20 year old, born Westoning; Hannah, daughter, 13, plaiting scholar, born Westoning; Joseph, son, 12, agricultural labourer, born Westoning; William, son, 10, plaiting scholar, born Westoning; Zilpah, daughter, 3, born Westoning. He lived next door to William Pedder.

SHARMAN, James: £30/8/8 to £42/1/-; in the 1851 census he is 54, an agricultural labourer, born in Westoning. Living with him are: Amelia, wife, 59, born Westoning; Thomas, son, 23, agricultural labourer, born Westoning.

SHERWOOD, Job: £38/8/- to £47/15/-; "Has seven in family; Mr. Turner states eight"; he is not in the 1851 census. A Job Shearwood was buried in 1841, aged 45.

SHORT, Jesse: nil; "Lives with his parents; is a straw-plaiter and works on the railroad; cannot ascertain his income"; in the 1851 census he is 32, unmarried, an agricultural labourer, born in Westoning and still living with his mother Ann, 79, a widow and pauper, born in Westoning. Also living there are James, his brother, 47, an agricultural labourer, born Westoning; Eliza, his sister, 34, at home, born Westoning; Ann Chapman, his sister, 29, straw plaiter, born Westoning; Joseph Chapman, Ann's son, 12, an agricultural labourer, born Westoning; Elizabeth Peddar, his niece, 15, starw plaiter, born Westoning; Tamar Peddar, his niece, 3, born Westoning. They lived next door to Richard Short.

SHORT, John: £25/6/10 to £28/10/-; "This man is stated by Mr. Turner two in family but he was single until 4th December last"; in the 1851 census he was 39, a garden labourer, born in Westoning. Living with him were: Ann, wife, 40, born Westoning; Mary, daughter, 10, plaiting scholar, born Westoning; William, son, 7, plaiting scholar, born Westoning; George, son, 4, born Westoning; Elizabeth, daughter, 10 months, born Westoning. He lived next to Thomas Gazeley.

SHORT, Richard: £32/11/- to £44/5/6; "Has four in family, Mr. Turner states five"; in the 1851 census he is 41, an agricultural labourer, born in Westoning. Living with him are: Arabella, wife, 44, born in Waddesdon [Buckinghamshire]; Lewis, son, 21, agricultural labourer, born Westoning; George, son, 19, agricultural labourer, born Westoning; Dinah, daughter, 12, plaiting scholar, born Westoning; Charles, son, 9, at home, born Tring [Hertfordshire]; Betsy, daughter, 4, born Westoning; William, son, 2, born Westoning; William Wildman, lodger, 21, agricultural labourer, born Greenfield; Ruth Wildman, William Wildman's wife, 25, born Westoning. He lived next to Jesse Short.

SOMERFIELD, John: £29/6/- to £31/3/-; in the 1851 census he is John Summerfield, 43, an agricultural labourer, born in Harlington. Living with him are: Mary, wife, 39, born Sharpenhoe; Charles, son, 17, agricultural labourer, born Westoning; Elizabeth, daughter, 15, at home, born Westoning; Thomas, son, 12, agricultural labourer, born Westoning; Jane, daughter, 8, at home, born Westoning; Edward, son, 6, scholar, born Westoning; Ann, daughter, 1, born Westoning; James, 70, John's father, pauper, born Westoning.

WALTON, James: £25/8/- to £30/2/-; in the 1851 census he is 43, an agricultural labourer, born in Streatley. Living with him are: Mary, wife, 43, born Luton; Fanny, daughter, 15, straw plaiter, born Westoning; Joseph, 12, son, agricultural labourer, born Westoning; Betsy, daughter, 11, plaiting scholar, born Westoning; William, 9, son, plaiting scholar, born Westoning; John, son, 7, ay home, born Westoning; Ruth, daughter, 5, born Westoning.

WILSTEAD, John: £26/16/- to £34/17/8; in the 1851 census he is John Hilstead, widower, 69, pauper, late agricultural labourer, born Toddington. He is living with his son-in-law Jesse Gazeley, aged 30, shepherd, born Westoning and his daughter Ann, 26, born Toddington. Jesse and Ann have a daughter, Naomi, aged 3, born Westoning and a son, Joseph, 2, born Westoning.